guerre de trente ans massacres

Gustavus signed an alliance with Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania, securing his interests in Pomerania against the Catholic Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, another Baltic competitor linked to Ferdinand by family and religion. [35] Gabriel Bethlen, Calvinist Prince of Transylvania, invaded Hungary with Ottoman support, although the Habsburgs persuaded them to avoid direct involvement, helped by the outbreak of hostilities with Poland in 1620, followed by the 1623 to 1639 war with Persia. [67] He won major victories at Breitenfeld in September 1631, then Rain in April 1632, where Tilly was killed. In 1651, Spain recaptured Barcelona, ending the revolt. [126], The Peace reconfirmed "German liberties", ending Habsburg attempts to convert the Holy Roman Empire into an absolutist state similar to Spain. In the end, the Portuguese retained control of Brazil and Angola, but the Dutch captured the Cape of Good Hope, as well as Portuguese possessions in Malacca, the Malabar Coast, the Moluccas and Ceylon. Elle a toujours une résonance particulière puisque la résurgence actuelle des guerres religieuses semble faire parfois mentir les règles de la géopolitique classique. After Frederick was deposed in 1623, John George of Saxony and the Calvinist George William of Brandenburg feared Ferdinand intended to reclaim former Catholic bishoprics currently held by Lutherans (see Map). Funded by Frederick and the Duke of Savoy, a mercenary army under Ernst von Mansfeld succeeded in stabilising the Bohemian position over the winter of 1618. Principauté archiépiscopale de Magdebourg, Portail du Saint-Empire romain germanique,, Bataille impliquant le Saint-Empire romain germanique, Portail:Saint-Empire romain germanique/Articles liés, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence. Structurellement, il ne s’agissait pourtant que d’une partie d’un affrontement plus large qui opposait les deux branches de la dynastie des Habsbourg à leurs nombreux La guerre de Trente Ans constitue toujours un objet de fascination. Le 3 avril 1631, Tilly, à la tête des troupes de la Ligue catholique, entreprit de s'en emparer. When the Eighty Years War restarted in April 1621, the Dutch provided Frederick military support to regain his lands, along with a mercenary army under Mansfeld paid for with English subsidies. Des guerres de Trente Ans, il y en a aussi dans le monde actuel. [23], As a result, when the Imperial Diet opened in February 1608, the Protestants demanded formal confirmation of the Augsburg settlement, which was especially significant for Calvinists like Frederick IV, Elector Palatine who had not been included. Many Spanish officials felt it was time to accept Dutch independence, but despite these challenges, their Empire remained a formidable power.  Habsburg Monarchy [79] The Madrid government quickly assembled an army of 26,000 men to crush the revolt, and on 23 January, they defeated the Catalans at Martorell. [131], Although religion remained an issue throughout the 17th century, it was the last major war in Continental Europe with religion as its primary driver; later such conflicts were either internal, such as the Camisards in South-Western France, or relatively minor like the 1712 Toggenburg War. Disputes within the Empire drew in outside powers, many of whom held Imperial territories, including the Dutch Prince of Orange, hereditary ruler of Nassau-Dillenburg. Unlike French gains which were incorporated into France, Swedish territories remained part of the Empire, and they became members of the Lower and Upper Saxon kreis. Les actes de guerre et de pillage durent jusqu'au 24 mai. In 1618, the Bohemian Estates deposed the Catholic Ferdinand II as King of Bohemia; they offered the Crown to the Protestant Frederick V of the Palatinate, who accepted. Denmark–Norway (1625–29) Over the next eighteen months, Spanish and Catholic League forces won a series of victories; by November 1622, they controlled most of the Palatinate, apart from Frankenthal, held by a small English garrison under Sir Horace Vere. Je suis très heureux d’être parmi vous ce soir, pour vous proposer un sujet qui, somme toute, est plutôt difficile. These trials lasted five years and claimed over one thousand lives, including long-time Bürgermeister, or Mayor, Johannes Junius, and Dorothea Flock, second wife of Georg Heinrich Flock, whose first wife had also been executed for witchcraft in May 1628. Maximilian was desperate to end the war he was largely responsible for starting, while Mazarin feared Sweden becoming too strong; on 14 March 1647, Bavaria, Cologne, France, and Sweden signed the Truce of Ulm. Pendant la guerre de Trente Ans (1618-1648), l'Alsace servit de champ de bataille aux armées impériales, suédoises, weimariennes et françaises. More common were disputes such as the 1606 'battle of the flags' in Donauwörth, when the Lutheran majority blocked a Catholic religious procession. [84] However, fighting continued as both sides tried to improve their bargaining position; suffering from ill-health, at the end of 1645 Torstenson was replaced by Carl Gustaf Wrangel, who over-ran Bavaria in the autumn of 1646. [127], By laying the foundations of the modern nation state, Westphalia changed the relationship of subjects and their rulers. [76], These setbacks put increasing pressure on both Ferdinand and Spanish minister Olivares to make peace. Le sac de Magdebourg désigne la conquête et le pillage de la ville de Magdebourg, le 20 mai 1631 (selon le calendrier grégorien) par les troupes de la Ligue catholique. Five days later, the Prince de Condé won a decisive French victory at Rocroi, although he was unable to take full advantage. [41], Spanish chief minister Olivares correctly interpreted this as an invitation to open negotiations, and in return for an Anglo-Spanish alliance offered to restore Frederick to his Rhineland possessions. La guerre de Trente Ans est une série de conflits armés qui a déchiré l’Europe du 23 mai 1618 au 15 mai 1648.Les causes en sont multiples mais son déclencheur est la révolte des sujets tchèques protestants de la maison de Habsbourg, la répression qui s'ensuivit, et le désir des Habsbourg d’accroître leur hégémonie et celle de la religion catholique dans le Saint-Empire. The French candidate, Charles I Gonzaga, was confirmed as Duke of Mantua; although Richelieu's representative, Cardinal Mazarin, agreed to evacuate Pinerolo, it was later secretly returned under an agreement with Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy. L'Espagne résiste, profitant des troubles de la Fronde. It does not appear to have reversed ongoing macro-economic trends, such as the reduction of price differentials between regional markets, and a greater degree of market integration across Europe. Entre la France et l'Espagne, la guerre va toutefois se prolonger jusqu'en 1659. The strategic importance of the Duchy of Mantua meant when the direct male line became extinct in December 1627, both powers became involved in the 1628 to 1631 War of the Mantuan Succession. [57], Once again, the methods used to obtain victory explain why the war failed to end. Includes soldiers from the Spanish Netherlands and Spanish Italy. [97], Negotiations with France and Sweden were conducted in conjunction with the Imperial Diet, and were multi-sided discussions involving many of the German states. [60] With French resources tied up in Italy, he helped negotiate the September 1629 Truce of Altmark between Sweden and Poland, freeing Gustavus Adolphus to enter the war. In July 1620, the Protestant Union proclaimed its neutrality, while John George of Saxony agreed to back Ferdinand in return for Lusatia, and a promise to safeguard the rights of Lutherans in Bohemia. A combined Imperial-Catholic League army funded by Maximilian and led by Count Tilly pacified Upper and Lower Austria before invading Bohemia, where they defeated Christian of Anhalt at the White Mountain in November 1620. [118], Contemporaries spoke of a 'frenzy of despair' as people sought to make sense of the turmoil and hardship unleashed by the war. In return, Ferdinand made concessions to Spain in Northern Italy and Alsace, and agreed to support their offensive against the Dutch. In 1621, the Dutch West India Company was formed to challenge this control and captured the Brazilian port of Salvador in 1624. Christian IV of Denmark was also Duke of Holstein, and it was in this capacity he joined the war in 1625. Menée presque exclusivement sur le territoire du Saint Empire et en grande partie sur le dos des populations civiles, la guerre de Trente Ans allait emporter un tiers de sa population, d’où la place centrale qu’elle a longtemps occupé dans la mémoire collective allemande, devenu le spectre de la guerre, avant que la dernière ne prenne en quelque sorte sa place. Despite the parties agreeing the Peace of Prague in 1635, fighting continued with Sweden and France on one side, the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs on the other. He concluded "about 40% of the rural population fell victim to the war and epidemics; in the cities,...33%". Ferdinand accepted the supremacy of the Imperial Diet and legal institutions, reconfirmed the Augsburg settlement, and recognised Calvinism as a third religion. [47] In 1621, Hamburg accepted Danish 'supervision', while his son Frederick became joint-administrator of Lübeck, Bremen and Verden. Actuel, pourquoi ? Après sa chute, (20 mai 1631) les soldats impériaux est allé hors de contrôle et ont massacré 25 000 des habitants. Bohemia (until 1620)  Brunswick-Lüneburg (1634–1642) [49], In the June 1624 Treaty of Compiègne, France subsidised the Dutch war against Spain for a minimum of three years. On 24 October, Ferdinand finally signed peace treaties with France and Sweden; the Swedes retreated from Prague, but not before looting many valuable treasures, including the Codex Gigas, today preserved in Stockholm. [123] In 2012, she and other victims were officially exonerated by the Cologne City Council. Celle-ci résiste, bien fortifiée, et attend les renforts du roi de Suède, Gustave-Adolphe. [107] Well into the 19th century, the leading cause of mortality even for soldiers was disease; of an estimated 600,000 military deaths between 1618 and 1648, only 200,000 were killed in combat. Opposant les Habsbourg d’Autriche et d’Espagne aux puissances européennes, Danemark, Suède, France, ce conflit majeur de l’Europe moderne a déchiré les états allemands impériaux entre eux. [18] In addition, rulers might share the same religion but have different economic and strategic objectives; for much of the war, the Papacy supported France against the Habsburgs. [114], The financial impact is less clear; while the war caused short-term economic dislocation, overall it accelerated existing changes in trading patterns. [32], Thurn established a new government, and the conflict expanded into Silesia and the Habsburg heartlands of Lower and Upper Austria, where much of the nobility was also Protestant. Leopold suffered 20,000 casualties, including 5,000 prisoners and 46 guns, compared to Swedish losses of 4,000 killed or wounded. In 1635, Ferdinand made peace with his German opponents by accepting their autonomy; in return, they dissolved the Heilbronn and Catholic Leagues. [24], One outcome was the formation of the Protestant Union, led by Frederick IV and largely composed of states in Southern Germany, to which Maximilian responded by setting up the Catholic League in July 1609. [43], At a meeting of the Imperial Diet in February 1623, Ferdinand forced through provisions transferring Frederick's titles, lands and electoral vote to Maximilian. [64] Despite the devastation inflicted on their territories by Imperial soldiers, both Saxony and Brandenburg had their own ambitions in Pomerania, which clashed with those of Gustavus; previous experience also showed inviting external powers into the Empire was easier than getting them to leave. Then the predominant global power, the Spanish Empire included the Spanish Netherlands, much of Italy, the Philippines, and most of the Americas, while Austria remained focused on Central Europe. [130] Although the Franco-Spanish conflict continued until 1659 and Spain remained a global force for another two centuries, Westphalia allowed Louis XIV of France to complete the process of replacing her as the predominant European power. [31], Ferdinand reconfirmed Protestant religious freedoms when elected king of Bohemia in May 1617, but his record in Styria led to the suspicion he was only awaiting a chance to overturn them. [89], Between 1629 and 1631, plague exacerbated by troop movements killed 60,000 in Milan and 46,000 in Venice, with proportionate losses elsewhere. The conflict can be split into two main parts. He began negotiations with Wallenstein, who despite his recent victories was concerned by the prospect of Swedish intervention, and thus anxious to make peace. With the exception of Christian of Anhalt, his advisors urged him to reject it, as did the Dutch, the Duke of Savoy, and his father-in-law James. [52], Many of Christian's German allies, such as Hesse-Kassel and Saxony, had little interest in replacing Imperial domination for Danish, while few of the subsidies agreed in the Treaty of the Hague were ever paid. [44] However, Spanish and Dutch involvement in the campaign was a significant step in internationalising the war, while Frederick's removal meant other Protestant princes began discussing armed resistance to preserve their own rights and territories. [94], Preliminary discussions began in 1642 but only became serious in 1646; talks were split between the towns of Münster and Osnabrück. [38], By abandoning Frederick, the German princes hoped to restrict the dispute to Bohemia, but Maximilian's dynastic ambitions made this impossible. De 1618 à 1648, la guerre de Trente ans a mis le Saint Empire à feu et à sang. [85], During the winter of 1647, Mazarin suggested to the Spanish they exchange Catalonia, currently occupied by France, for the Spanish Netherlands; angered by this, in January 1648 the Dutch signed the Peace of Münster, ending their war with Spain. In 1625, he intervened in Northern Germany but withdrew in 1629 after a series of defeats. Its main provisions included Spanish confirmation of Dutch independence, and acceptance of "German liberties" by the Austrian Habsburgs. When Ferdinand was elected king of Bohemia in 1617, he gained control of its electoral vote; however, his conservative Catholicism made him unpopular with the largely Protestant Bohemian nobility, who were also concerned at the erosion of their rights. Daniel Kehlmann a choisi de lui faire traverser la guerre de Trente Ans, ce conflit qui dévasta l’Europe entre 1618 et 1648. The first period from 1618 to 1635 was a struggle within the Holy Roman Empire, fought between Emperor Ferdinand II and his internal opponents, with external powers playing a supportive role. Dans la matinée du 1 er octobre 1990, le FPR-Inkotanyi attaqua le poste-frontière de Kagitumba entre le Rwanda et l’Ouganda. [15], These figures can be misleading, since Franz calculated the absolute decline in pre and post-war populations, or 'total demographic loss'. Luc Rugamba, octobre 5, 2020. In 1938, CV Wedgwood argued it formed part of a wider European conflict, whose underlying cause was the ongoing contest between Austro-Spanish Habsburgs and French Bourbons. Sweden (from 1630) [73], After invading the Spanish Netherlands in May 1635, the poorly equipped French army collapsed, suffering 17,000 casualties from disease and desertion. La guerre de Trente ans (1618-1648) fut le plus grand et le plus important des conflits qui ont marqué l’Europe moderne. In May 1618, Protestant nobles led by Count Thurn met in Prague Castle with Ferdinand's two Catholic representatives, Vilem Slavata and Jaroslav Borzita.  Dutch Republic (from 1619) At the same time, the Swedes under Johan Banér marched into Brandenburg; victory at Wittstock on 4 October 1636 regained most of the ground lost after Nördlingen. [78], Richelieu died in 1642, and was replaced as chief minister by Cardinal Mazarin, followed on 14 May 1643 by the death of Louis XIII, leaving his five-year-old son Louis XIV as heir. Food shortages were worsened by an explosion in the rodent population; Bavaria was over-run by wolves in the winter of 1638, its crops destroyed by packs of wild pigs the following spring. Elle opposa les Habsbourg d’Espagne et du Saint-Empire romain germanique, soutenus par la papauté, aux États allemands protestants frondeurs du Saint-Empire, ainsi qu’à leurs alliés (Danemark, Suède, et France notamment). Massacre de protestants par les catholiques pendant les guerres de religions. This new assault on 'German liberties' ensured continuing opposition and undermined his previous success. [40], The strategic importance of the Palatinate and its proximity to the Spanish Road drew in external powers; in August 1620, the Spanish occupied the Lower Palatinate. Their attribution by some to supernatural causes led to a series of Witch-hunts, beginning in Franconia in 1626 and quickly spreading to other parts of Germany, which were often exploited for political purposes. [101] It also disappointed many exiles by accepting the restoration of Catholicism as the dominant religion in Bohemia, Upper and Lower Austria, strongholds of Protestantism in 1618. [110], The modern consensus is the population of the Holy Roman Empire declined from 18 to 20 million in 1600 to 11-13 million in 1650, and did not reach pre-war levels until 1750. [120], At the same time, Prince-Bishop Johann von Dornheim held a similar series of large-scale witch trials in the nearby Bishopric of Bamberg. These actions were greeted with approval by his domestic critics, who considered his pro-Spanish policy a betrayal of the Protestant cause. Les soldats impériaux, échappant rapidement à leur commandement, massacrent les habitants et incendient la ville. Il y a eu un avant et un après la Guerre de Trente Ans. Lire aussi: Jeu perfide entre réalité et … [95], The Peace of Münster was the first to be signed on 30 January 1648; it was part of Westphalia because the provinces that made up the Dutch Republic were still technically part of the Spanish Netherlands and thus Imperial territories. The Palatinate was clearly lost; in March, James instructed Vere to surrender Frankenthal, while Tilly's victory over Christian of Brunswick at Stadtlohn in August completed military operations. By the time he died in 1631, over 900 people from all levels of society had been executed. [72], Defeat at Nördlingen threatened Sweden's participation, leading Richelieu to intervene directly. La guerre de Trente Ans fut une suite de conflits armés qui mit l’Europe à sang de 1618 à 1648 . Première partie • « La guerre de trente ans » (1914-1945) avec ses massacres à grande échelle, ses tueries de masse et le génocide des juifs. Under the December 1625 Treaty of The Hague, the Dutch and English now agreed to finance Danish intervention in the Empire. [74] In March 1636, France finally joined the Thirty Years War in alliance with Sweden, launching offensives in Germany and the Low Countries. [93], This was accompanied by a struggle for control in the East Indies and Africa, increasing Portuguese resentment against the Spanish, who were perceived as prioritising their own colonies. It includes factors unrelated to death or disease, such as permanent migration to areas outside the Empire, or lower birthrates, a less obvious impact of extended warfare. While flight may have saved lives in the short-term, in the long run it often proved catastrophic. La guerre de Trente Ans a été menée entre 1618 et 1648. [45], With Saxony dominating the Upper Saxon Circle and Brandenburg the Lower, both kreis had remained neutral during the campaigns in Bohemia and the Palatinate. […] Le monde fait la guerre de trente ans, pour ou contre la domination universelle du germanisme ». Une guerre, à l'époque où la Lorraine était un duché indépendant de la France . Gustave Adolphe qui s'était déclaré protecteur de la cité envoya un de ses officiers, Dietrich von Falkenburg prendre le commandement de la garnison. Certaines durent depuis près de dix ans. [70] Two months later, the Swedes won a resounding victory at Lützen, where Gustavus was killed. [104], Historians often refer to the 'General Crisis' of the mid-17th century, a period of sustained conflict in states such as China, the British Isles, Tsarist Russia and the Holy Roman Empire. [80], After Wittstock, the Swedish army regained the initiative in Germany; at Second Breitenfeld in October 1642, Swedish commander Lennart Torstenson defeated an Imperial army led by Archduke Leopold Wilhelm of Austria and Ottavio Piccolomini. The 1555 Peace of Augsburg was intended to end conflict between German Protestants and Catholics by establishing the principle of cuius regio, eius religio. [51], The intervention involved three Protestant armies; the main force under Christian IV was to advance down the Weser, while Mansfeld attacked Wallenstein in Magdeburg and Christian of Brunswick linked up with the Calvinist Maurice of Hesse-Kassel. This view is now generally accepted by historians. L'instabilité politique et religieuse du Saint Empire romain germanique est à l'origine du conflit : pour résister aux progrès de la Réforme catholique, les princes protestants, dont certains ont adhéré au calvinisme, confession non reconnue par la paix d'Augsbourg (1555), se regroupent en une Union évangélique(1608). There was little serious fighting after France took control of Perpignan and Roussillon, establishing the modern Franco-Spanish border in the Pyrenees. Emperor Rudolf approved intervention by the Catholic Maximilian of Bavaria on their behalf; he was allowed to annex Donauwörth to recover his costs, turning a Lutheran town Catholic. Les trois premières s’achèvent sur un succès du camp impérial et catholique, ce qui engage dans le conflit, à chaque fois, un nouvel acteur pour soutenir le camp protestant. Attempts by Maximilian of Bavaria and John George of Saxony to broker a negotiated solution ended when Matthias died in March 1619, since it convinced many the Habsburgs were fatally damaged. He was supported by Spain, for whom it provided an opportunity to open another front against the Dutch.  Duchy of Savoy (1618–19) [112], In 1940, agrarian historian Günther Franz published Der Dreissigjährige Krieg und das Deutsche Volk, a detailed analysis of regional data from across Germany; his membership of the Nazi Party meant his objectivity was challenged post-1945, but recent reviews support his general findings. Massacres, famines, pestes déciment plus de la moitié de la population, et c'est une Alsace misérable qu'en des clauses obscures le traité de … In all these areas, war, famine and disease inflicted severe losses on local populations. Bolstered by this success, Ferdinand passed the Edict of Restitution, which undermined territorial rights across large areas of North and Central Germany. Estimates of the total number of military and civilian deaths which resulted from it range from 4.5 to 8 million, the vast majority of the deaths resulted from disease or starvation. This influential work was later credited with ending the practice in Germany, and eventually throughout Europe. [71] Rumours now began circulating Wallenstein was preparing to switch sides, and in February 1634, Ferdinand issued orders for his arrest; on 25th, he was assassinated by one of his officers in Cheb. [83] As with Rocroi, Condé was unable to fully exploit this success; his losses shocked the French court, while 25 years of constant war had devastated the countryside, forcing armies to spend more time foraging than fighting, and drastically reducing their ability to sustain campaigns. He did so with support from the Catholic League, despite strong opposition from Protestant members, as well as the Spanish. La guerre de Trente ans Marie-Noëlle Faure Ellipses, 2019, 327 p. ... Des massacres de populations massives s’ensuivent ou aucun être humain n’est épargné. [46], As Duke of Holstein, Christian IV was also a member of the Lower Saxon circle, while Denmark's economy relied on the Baltic trade and tolls from traffic through the Øresund. [111] Nearly 50% of these losses appear to have been incurred during the first period of Swedish intervention from 1630 to 1635.

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