Pendant le hajj, elle est remplacée par un drap blanc pour s'a… La Kalima al Tawhid que l’on peut croiser presque partout, insiste sur l’identité islamique de l’Etat ; les noms d’Abu Bakr, Omar, Othman et Ali que l’on peut voir sur le voile de la Kaaba, sur le portique du Masjid Al Haram, etc. ", In her book Islam: A Short History, Karen Armstrong asserts that the Kaaba was officially dedicated to Hubal, a Nabatean deity, and contained 360 idols which probably represented the days of the year.  The iconography portrayed a seated Maryam with her child on her lap. 'Depiction') of Maryam and 'Isa. When Muhammad’s forces conquered Mecca in 630, he ordered the destruction of the pagan idols housed in the shrine and ordered it cleansed of all signs of polytheism. Sur environ un km2. Each numbered item in the following list corresponds to features noted in the diagram image. Behold! The section covering the geography starts with a speculation about the origin of the Muslim sanctuary in Arabia: "Regarding the K'bta (Kaaba) of Abraham, we have been unable to discover what it is except that, because the blessed Abraham grew rich in property and wanted to get away from the envy of the Canaanites, he chose to live in the distant and spacious parts of the desert. More than 1.6 billion Muslims face the Kaaba from all over the world. Timur Kuran, “Commercial Life under Islamic Rule,” in The Long Divergence : How Islamic Law Held Back the Middle East. He did so on the basis of a tradition (found in several hadith collections) that the hatīm was a remnant of the foundations of the Abrahamic Kaaba, and that Muhammad himself had wished to rebuild it so as to include it. A statue of Hubal (the principal idol of Mecca) and statues of other pagan deities are known to have been placed in or around the Kaaba. …to a local shrine, the Kaʿbah. Marble stripe marking the beginning and end of each circumambulation.  The area around the Kaaba on which pilgrims circumambulate is called the Mataaf. The same year, during the reign of Ottoman Emperor Murad IV, the Kaaba was rebuilt with granite stones from Mecca, and the Mosque was renovated.  Members of the tribe greet visitors to the inside of the Kaaba on the occasion of the cleaning ceremony.  The others also allegedly had counterparts of the Black Stone.  G. E. von Grunebaum states: "Mecca is mentioned by Ptolemy. " In Meccan Trade and the Rise of Islam, Patricia Crone argues that the identification of Macoraba with Mecca is false and that Macoraba was a town in southern Arabia in what was then known as Arabia Felix. In 624 CE, Muslims believe the direction of the qibla was changed from the Masjid al-Aqsa to the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, with the revelation of Surah 2, verse 144. During most of the year the Kaaba is covered with an enormous cloth of black brocade, the kiswah. Both the roof and ceiling (collectively dual-layered) are made of stainless steel-capped teak wood. The Kaaba has since been the focal point of Muslim piety. Merci, salam, bonne soirée Several rituals were adopted in the pilgrimage including doing naked circumambulation.  Ibn Ishaq says that the timber for the reconstruction of the Kaaba came from a Greek ship that had been wrecked on the Red Sea coast at Shu'aybah and that the work was undertaken by a Coptic carpenter called Baqum. Tradition goes that the Kaaba was ordained by Allah (swt) to be built in the shape of the House in Heaven called Baitul Ma’amoor.Allah in his infinite Mercy ordained a similar place on earth and Prophet Adam was the first to build this place. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). 'Abdullah rebuilt it to include the hatīm. Ibn Ishaq's Sirat Rasūl Allāh, one of the biographies of Muhammad (as reconstructed and translated by Guillaume), describes Muhammad settling a quarrel between the Meccan clans as to which clan should set the Black Stone in its place. This combat-free zone allowed Mecca to thrive not only as a place of pilgrimage, but also as a trading center.. Crone believes that this is an exaggeration and that Mecca may only have been an outpost for trading with nomads for leather, cloth, and camel butter. Verily, the first House (of worship) appointed for mankind was that at Bakkah (Makkah), full of blessing, and a guidance for mankind. Tawaf (Arabic: طَوَاف, lit. Les versets/expressions qui reflètent le dogme fondamental de l’Islam. Difficile de croire que des personnes continuent d'être inhumées dans ce sanctuaire vieux de plus de 1400 ans. Accept (this service) from us: For Thou art the All-Hearing, the All-knowing. Updates?  and Bayt Allah al-Haram (Arabic: بيت الله الحرام, romanized: Bayt Allah il-Haram, lit. After the construction was complete, God enjoined the descendants of Ishmael to perform an annual pilgrimage: the Hajj and the Korban, sacrifice of cattle. The Kaaba, meaning cube in Arabic, is a square building, elegantly draped in a silk and cotton veil. In Samaritan literature, the Samaritan Book of the Secrets of Moses (Asatir) claims that Ishmael and his eldest son Nebaioth built the Kaaba as well as the city of Mecca. 'Cloth') is changed. We gave the site, to Ibrahim, of the (Sacred) House, (saying): "Associate not anything (in worship) with Me; and sanctify My House for those who compass it round, or stand up, or bow, or prostrate themselves (therein in prayer). 'Honored Ka'bah'), is a building at the center of Islam's most important mosque, the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. 'The Sacred House of Allah'). The Kaaba is depicted on the reverse of 500 Saudi riyal, and the 2000 Iranian rial banknotes.. In 693 CE, 'Abd al-Malik had the remnants of al-Zubayr's Kaaba razed, and rebuilt it on the foundations set by the Quraysh. Many Muslim and academic historians stress the power and importance of the pre-Islamic Mecca. 'The Cube', Arabic pronunciation: ), also spelled Ka'bah or Kabah, sometimes referred to as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (Arabic: ٱلْكَعْبَة ٱلْمُشَرَّفَة , romanized: al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah, lit. This is an early record from the Rashidun caliphate, of a Christian origin that explicitly mentions the Kaaba, and confirms the idea that not just the Arabs but certain Christians as well, associated the site with Abraham in the seventh century. During Muhammad’s early ministry, the Kaaba was the qiblah, or direction of prayer, for the Muslim community. Along the top corners of the walls runs a Black cloth embroidered with gold Qur'anic verses. Saudi archeologist Mohammed Almaghthawi discovered some rock inscriptions mentioning the Masjid Al Haram and the Kaaba, dating back to the first and second centuries of Islam. Hans Wehr, Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 1994. Per a hypothesis by Uri Rubin and Christian Robin, Hubal was only venerated by Quraysh and the Kaaba was first dedicated to Allah, a supreme god of individuals belonging to different tribes, while the pantheon of the gods of Quraysh was installed in Kaaba after they conquered Mecca a century before Muhammad's time. The interior contains nothing but the three pillars supporting the roof and a number of suspended silver and gold lamps. Muslims orient themselves toward this shrine during the five daily prayers, bury their dead facing its meridian, and cherish the ambition of visiting it on pilgrimage, or hajj, in accord with the command set out in the Qurʾān.  Circumambulation was often performed naked by men and almost naked by women. His first action was to remove statues and images from the Kaaba. ", Ibn Kathir, in his famous exegesis (tafsir) of the Quran, mentions two interpretations among the Muslims on the origin of the Kaaba. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Kaaba-shrine-Mecca-Saudi-Arabia, Sacred Destinations - Kaaba, Mecca, Saudi Arabia, The David Collection - Mecca and the Kaaba.  The Kaaba's appearance has not changed since then. It took its present name from what it had been, since the memory of the place was preserved with the generations of their race. Poids : environ 700 kg, dont 670 kg de soie, 120 kg d’or et 50 kg d’argent pour les transcriptions qui la décorent. The exact sense is ambiguous, but many Muslims have interpreted the phrase to mean that they rebuilt a shrine first erected by Adam of which only the foundations still existed. The Kaaba (Arabic: ٱلْكَعْبَة , romanized: al-Kaʿbah, lit. The Qibla is the direction faced during prayer. The Kaʿbah housed the deities of visitors as well as the Meccans’ supra-tribal creator and covenant-guaranteeing deity, called Allāh. The Kaaba surrounded by pilgrims during the hajj, Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Another stone was the Maqam Ibrahim, the Station of Abraham, where Abraham stood for elevation while building the structure. Usually, the entire process is completed in two hours. Les quatre coins de la Kaaba furent orientés vers les points cardinaux et une pierre noire céleste, remise par un ange, fut enchâssée dans le coin oriental du sanctuaire. C'est l'histoire de la Ka'aba et les personnes qui l'ont protégé et est resté ses gardiens et les protecteurs de la satanique et les forces du mal dans l'histoire. Muhammad took part in the reconstruction of the Kaaba after its structure was damaged due to floods around 600 CE. Tawaf begins from the corner of the Kaaba with the Black Stone. Once a year, tribes from all around the Arabian Peninsula, whether Christian or pagan, would converge on Mecca to perform the Hajj pilgrimage, marking the widespread conviction that Allah was the same deity worshipped by monotheists. , At the culmination of his mission, in 630 CE, after the allies of the Quraysh, the Banu Bakr, violated the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, Muhammad conquered Mecca. The…. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The keys to the Kaaba are held by the Banī Shaybah (Arabic: بني شيبة) tribe, an honor bestowed upon them by Muhammad. The structure is 50 feet high (15.24 meters), 35 feet (10.67 meters) wide and 40 feet long (12.19 meters) long. Once every lunar year, the Bedouin tribes would make a pilgrimage to Mecca. The Kaaba has been repaired and reconstructed many times. Caretakers anoint the marble cladding with the same scented oil used to anoint the Black Stone outside. The Black Stone and the Maqam Ibrahim are believed by Muslims to be the only remnant of the original structure made by Abraham as the remaining structure had to be demolished and rebuilt several times over history for its maintenance. Attractions près de Kaaba : (0.01 Km) Pierre noire (0.06 Km) Masjid Taneem (0.22 Km) Great Mosque of Mecca - Masjid al-Haram (0.29 Km) Abraj Al-Bait Towers (0.35 Km) Raffles Spa; Voir toutes les attractions près de Kaaba sur Tripadvisor  According to the Saudi Ministry of Hajj and Umrah, 6,791,100 pilgrims arrived for the Umrah pilgrimage in the Islamic year 1439 AH,[a] a 3.6% increase from the previous year, with 2,489,406 others arriving for the 1440 AH Hajj. 'House of Allah'). Kaaba (Larabci ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة Ka'abah) ana kuma kiran ta da al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah (Larabci ٱلْـكَـعْـبَـة الْـمُـشَـرًّفَـة Daki mai tsarki), wani ginannen daki ne a birnin Makka na kasar Saudiyya mai matukar tsarki a tsakani Misulmai. " The Asatir book was likely compiled in the 10th century CE, though Moses Gaster suggested in 1927 that it was written no later than the second half of the 3rd century BCE. 'Cleaning of the Sacred Cube').  To be in a state of Wudu (ablution) is mandatory while performing tawaf as it is considered to be a form of worship ('ibadah). It is located inside the Grand Mosque in Makkah (Mecca) Saudi Arabia.  The iconography in the Kaaba also included paintings of other prophets and angels. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Kaʿbah, shrine in the Great Mosque, Mecca. La kiswa (de l'arabe كسوة [ costume]) est une étoffe de soie noire qui recouvre la Ka'ba (ou Kaaba) à La Mecque, et qui est ornée à mi-hauteur de calligraphies de la profession de foi musulmane et de versets coraniques, brodées en fil d'or. , Writing in the Encyclopedia of Islam, Wensinck identifies Mecca with a place called Macoraba mentioned by Ptolemy. Three pillars (some erroneously report two) stand inside the Kaaba, with a small altar or table set between one and the other two.  Various sculptures and paintings were held inside the Kaaba. La Kaaba (cube en arabe) est située à La Mecque, lieu saint de l'Islam, en Arabie saoudite.. C'est un édifice (15 mètres de haut et 12 mètres par 12 mètres au sol) construit en pierre de couleur grise.Aussi appelée par les musulmans « la maison de Dieu », elle est située au centre du lieu le plus sacré en islam : la mosquée Masjid el-Haram. Legend has it that the stone was originally white but has become black by absorbing the sins of the countless thousands of pilgrims who have kissed and touched it. L’intérieur de la kaaba est quasiment vide. During the Hajj of 930 CE, the Shi'ite Qarmatians attacked Mecca under Abu Tahir al-Jannabi, defiled the Zamzam Well with the bodies of pilgrims and stole the Black Stone, taking it to the oasis in Eastern Arabia known as al-Aḥsāʾ, where it remained until the Abbasids ransomed it in 952 CE.  Edward Gibbon believed that this was the Kaaba. Yasser a publié quelques photos sur son compte Instagram en décrivant brièvement les clichés. A picture of 'Isa and his mother Maryam was situated inside the Kaaba and later found by Muhammad after his conquest of Mecca.  The circling is believed to demonstrate the unity of the believers in the worship of the One God, as they move in harmony together around the Kaaba, while supplicating to God. Apart from praying, Muslims generally consider facing the Qibla while reciting the Quran to be a part of good etiquette. He secured a peace treaty with them, the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, which allowed the Muslims to freely perform pilgrimage at the Kaaba from the following year.  Alfred Guillaume, in his translation of the Ibn Ishaq's seerah, says that the Kaaba itself might be referred to in the feminine form. J'ai entendu certaines personnes dirent que Adam ( paix sur lui ) aurait construit la Kaaba. Setting aside any tribal feuds, they would worship their gods in the Kaaba and trade with each other in the city. ], ille esseva pardonate per Deo.In le angulo nord-est es Hajar Al-Aswad, le petra nigre.Illo es ubicate in le moschea del Haram.. Hawting, G.R. Zamzam water mixed with rose perfume is splashed on the floor and is wiped with palm leaves. Or, le verset 2-127, dit que c'est Ibrahim sws et son fils ismail sws. 1 en parlent.  Again, Crone disputes this etymology. (bukhari :3020) La maison… Muslim worshippers pray at the Kaaba, Islam’s holiest shrine, at the Grand Mosque in Saudi Arabia’s holy city of Mecca, June 23, during the last Friday of the holy month of Ramadan. Professor Juan Cole is of the opinion that the inscription is likely from the second century A.H. (c. 718 – 815 AD). En moyenne, 75 personnes y sont inhumées par jour, donc plus de 27 000 par an. Later, a house of worship was built on the location and was lost during the flood in Noah's time and was finally rebuilt by Abraham and Ishmael as mentioned later in the Quran. Most Arabs probably viewed this deity as one among many, possessing powers not specific to a particular tribe; others may have identified this figure with…, In Muhammad’s view, the Kaʿbah had been dedicated to the aniconic worship of the one God (Allāh) by Abraham, who fathered the ancestor of the Israelites, Isḥāq (Isaac), as well as the ancestor of the Arabs, Ismāʿīl (Ishmael). After heavy rains and flooding in 1626, the walls of the Kaaba collapsed and the Mosque was damaged. According to Ishaq's biography, Muhammad's solution was to have all the clan elders raise the cornerstone on a cloak, after which Muhammad set the stone into its final place with his own hands. ", After the conquest, Muhammad restated the sanctity and holiness of Mecca, including its Masjid al-Haram, in Islam. The basic shape and structure of the Kaaba have not changed since then.. The Kaaba is a cuboid-shaped structure made of stones. Très peu de décoration, les … Grunebaum in Classical Islam points out that the experience of divinity of that period was often associated with the fetishism of stones, mountains, special rock formations, or "trees of strange growth. Ce premier temple de l’univers selon Coran et même l’épicentre du monde selon des sources islamiques, est aussi sacré que mystérieux. Since he lived in tents, he built that place for the worship of God and for the offering of sacrifices. Muslims initially considered Jerusalem as their qibla, or prayer direction, and faced toward it while offering prayers; however, pilgrimage to the Kaaba was considered a religious duty though its rites were not yet finalized. The vicinity of the shrine was also made a sanctuary where bloodshed and war were forbidden. Each pilgrim who undertakes the Hajj circles the shrine seven times, touching the Black Stone for forgiveness. L’histoire de la Kaâba. Choisissez parmi des contenus premium Kaaba de la plus haute qualité. , The literal meaning of the word Ka'bah (Arabic: كعبة) is cube.. In the Qur'an, the Ka'bah is also mentioned by the following names: The masjid surrounding the Kaaba is called al-Masjid al-Haram ("The Sacred Mosque"). The interior walls, measuring 13 m × 9 m (43 ft × 30 ft), are clad with tiled, white marble halfway to the roof, with darker trimmings along the floor. Pilgrimage to a holy site is a core principle of almost all faiths. They depict it as a city grown rich on the proceeds of the spice trade.
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