bombardement dresde phosphore

[7], On 13 February 1945, bad weather over Europe prevented any USAAF operations, and it was left to RAF Bomber Command to carry out the first raid. Allégorie de la bonté[45], statue de Peter Pöppelmann (de)[46] sur la tour de l'hôtel de ville de Dresde[47]. Les deux premiers raids de la RAF furent de 243 puis 529 Lancaster (bombardiers de nuit en raison de leur conception moins défensive – cible : ville « city area ») ; le troisième, le lendemain 14, par l'USAF, était de 316 B-17 (bombardiers conçus pour opérer de jour avec des défenses efficaces à bord, et avec précision – cible : triages « marshalling yards ») accompagné de 100 à 200 chasseurs ; le quatrième raid, le 15 février, de L'USAF, était de 211 B-17 – cible : triages[13],[14]. With the city on fire everywhere, those fleeing from one burning cellar simply ran into another, with the result that thousands of bodies were found piled up in houses at the end of city blocks. [71] Frederick Taylor in Dresden (2004), basing most of his analysis on the work of Bergander and Schnatz, concludes that no strafing took place, although some stray bullets from aerial dogfights may have hit the ground and been mistaken for strafing by those in the vicinity. Now I do not need to write it, because Vonnegut has written it much better than I could. The report concludes with: The specific forces and means employed in the Dresden bombings were in keeping with the forces and means employed by the Allies in other aerial attacks on comparable targets in Germany. It was estimated that at least 23% of the city's industrial buildings were destroyed or severely damaged. The scale of the destruction in Dresden was some of the most horrific of the air war in Europe, and the attack has been condemned as a war crime. Une utilisation massive permet de provoquer un Feuersturm, un embrasement généralisé de l'air détruisant de larges surfaces, comme lors des bombardements stratégiques durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale en Allemagne et au Japon. Pour le parti d’extrême droite Alternative pour l'Allemagne (AFD), le nombre officiel de victimes est largement sous-estimé. Le gouvernement nazi utilisa ce bombardement à des fins de propagande. It is also truthful. Civilian strafing was in fact a regular practice of the Luftwaffe throughout the war. [39] It said that there were 110 factories and 50,000 workers in the city supporting the German war effort at the time of the raid. Le bombardement de Dresde, dans la partie orientale de l'Allemagne, demeure pour l'Europe le pendant d'Hiroshima et de Nagasaki au Japon: une horreur méthodiquement préparée, organisée et exécutée par ceux qui se présentent encore aujourd'hui comme les «libérateurs». Proponents of this position argue that the devastation from firebombing was greater than anything that could be justified by military necessity alone, and this establishes a prima facie case. She runs, she falls, and the child flies in an arc into the fire. [47] Other raids were carried out that night to confuse German air defences. Le bombardement de Dresde par les Alliés, du 13 au 15 février 1945, détruisit la quasi-totalité de la ville. Dresde 1945 on [121], The new Frauenkirche was reconstructed over seven years by architects using 3D computer technology to analyse old photographs and every piece of rubble that had been kept and was formally consecrated on 30 October 2005, in a service attended by some 1,800 guests, including Germany's president, Horst Köhler; previous and current chancellors, Gerhard Schröder and Angela Merkel; and the Duke of Kent. [63] The mix of bombs for the Dresden raid was about 40% incendiaries—much closer to the RAF city-busting mix than the USAAF usually used in precision bombardment. L'évaluation du nombre de morts a beaucoup fluctué. Après ceux d’Hiroshima et de Nagasaki, il s’agit du bombardement aérien le plus meurtrier de cette guerre. Les services de renseignements occidentaux étaient arrivés à la conclusion que la Wehrmacht allait déplacer 42 divisions (un demi-million d'hommes) vers le front de l'Est, alors proche de la ville, et les services soviétiques avaient signalé d'importants mouvements de trains sur le centre de triage de Dresde (en fait, des trains de réfugiés fuyant l'avance de l'Armée rouge qui effectuait l'offensive Vistule-Oder). [125], In 2003, a petition in support of reconstructing the Neumarkt area was signed by nearly 68,000 people, amounting to 15% of the entire electorate. Le 09-mar-2013 - Explora el tablero de Emilio Rassiner "La destrucción de Dresde" en Pinterest. Allied arguments centre around the existence of a local air defence system and additional ground defences the Germans were constructing in anticipation of Soviet advances. This was a common mix when the USAAF anticipated cloudy conditions over the target. [1] The bombing and the resulting firestorm destroyed more than 1,600 acres (6.5 km2) of the city centre. Free delivery on qualified orders. a) en 42 pages, un état des connaissances actuelles sur la recherche et l'enregistrement des personnes décédées durant le bombardement (Matthias Neutzner); Le bombardement qui ne « pouvait pas avoir lieu ». [49], The first of the British aircraft took off at around 17:20 hours CET for the 700-mile (1,100 km) journey. Commentaire Signaler un abus. 3,0 sur 5 étoiles bon film de guerre. This site uses cookies to deliver our services, improve performance, for analytics, and (if not signed in) for advertising. [28] This allowed Sinclair to inform Churchill on 27 January of the Air Staff's agreement that, "subject to the overriding claims" on other targets under the Pointblank Directive, strikes against communications in these cities to disrupt civilian evacuation from the east and troop movement from the west would be made. [13] Der Spiegel writes that, for decades, the Communist government of East Germany promoted the bombing as an example of "Anglo-American terror," and now the same rhetoric is being used by the far right. His account relates that over 135,000 were killed during the firebombings. At 22:03 the Local Air Raid Leadership issued the first definitive warning: "Warning! The Eighth Air Force had already bombed the railway yards near the centre of the city twice in daytime raids: once on 7 October 1944 with 70 tons of high-explosive bombs killing more than 400,[46] then again with 133 bombers on 16 January 1945, dropping 279 tons of high-explosives and 41 tons of incendiaries. Elle regorgeait d’œuvres d’art, mais elle était aussi une ville ayant une grande valeur stratégique, car jouant le rôle de nœud de communication. Baggrund og mål for angrebet. Les bombes classiques et à retardement furent aussi utilisées. [64] Taylor compares this 40% mix with the raid on Berlin on 3 February, where the ratio was 10% incendiaries. Bomb the glow of red TIs as planned". I am that person. At 21:59 the Local Air Raid Leadership confirmed that the bombers were in the area of Dresden-Pirna. Cookies hjælper os desuden med at få overblik over dit besøg på hjemmesiden. - Buy Dresde 1945 book online at best prices in india on Selon Gert Bürgel[41], les témoignages entendus et les matériaux de travail de la commission sont inaccessibles, couverts par le secret et ne peuvent donc pas être l'objet d'étude critique. I do not personally regard the whole of the remaining cities of Germany as worth the bones of one British Grenadier. Le fait aussi que le bombardement de Dresde qui a finalement était choisi pour l'opération de destruction soit constitué en deux parties avec des obus à retardement est beaucoup plus instructif et passionnant. Some business I'm in.[163]. Série "Toute L’histoire" par Frida samedi 11 mai 2013 7%. We use cookies and similar tools to enhance your shopping experience, to provide our services, understand how customers use our services so we can make improvements, and display ads. Warning! Voici 70 ans, du 13 au 15 février 1945, la ville de Dresde fut largement détruite par un raid aérien massif de bombardiers anglais et américains. It also contained all of the worst from Germany during the Nazi period. When plans for the rebuilding of Dresden's Frauenkirche became certain, the (GHND) began calls for the reconstruction of the historic buildings that surrounded it. The bombings are a central theme in the 2006 German TV production, The devastation of Dresden was recorded in the woodcuts of Wilhelm Rudolph, an artist born in the city who resided there until his death in 1982, and was 55 at the time of the bombing. In the midst of winter with refugees pouring westward and troops to be rested, roofs are at a premium, not only to give shelter to workers, refugees, and troops alike, but to house the administrative services displaced from other areas. [42] Colonel Harold E. Cook, a US POW held in the Friedrichstadt marshaling yard the night before the attacks, later said that "I saw with my own eyes that Dresden was an armed camp: thousands of German troops, tanks and artillery and miles of freight cars loaded with supplies supporting and transporting German logistics towards the east to meet the Russians".[43]. [86][87] Another report on 3 April put the number of corpses recovered at 22,096. Cependant, ces deux raids n'avaient visé que les banlieues où se trouvaient des usines, et notamment celles … L'évaluation actuelle du nombre des victimes se situe autour de 35 000 morts (dont 25 000 corps identifiés)[2],[3]. Bombardement de Dresde - Le bombardement de Dresde eut lieu du au , selon les principes de la directive du ministère de l'Aviation du gouvernement britannique sur le bombardement de zone du , devenue avec l'USAAF la en 1943. A Dresden police report written shortly after the attacks reported that the old town and the inner eastern suburbs had been engulfed in a single fire that had destroyed almost 12,000 dwellings. Dresde 1945: 3760207260085: Books - Freeman Dyson, a British (and later American) physicist who had worked as a young man with RAF Bomber Command from July 1943 to the end of the war,[165] wrote in later years: "For many years I had intended to write a book on the bombing. Around 78,000 dwellings had been completely destroyed; 27,700 were uninhabitable, and 64,500 damaged but readily repairable. Frauenkirche: Exceptionnel - consultez 6 540 avis de voyageurs, 3 948 photos, les meilleures offres et comparez les prix pour Dresde, Allemagne sur Tripadvisor. Alors que les pilotes de l'USAF ne connaissaient généralement pas la ville de Dresde, certains de la RAF connaissaient le caractère artistique et touristique de la capitale de l'ancien Royaume de Saxe (d'où son surnom « Elbflorenz » : la Florence de l'Elbe) concrètement illustré par les manufactures de porcelaine de Saxe, appelée en anglais « Dresden China ». An RAF memo issued to airmen on the night of the attack gave some reasoning for the raid: Dresden, the seventh largest city in Germany and not much smaller than Manchester is also the largest unbombed builtup area the enemy has got. It is now none of these things.[112]. Après ceux d’Hiroshima et de Nagasaki, il s’agit du bombardement aérien le plus meurtrier de cette guerre. The first was on 2 March 1945, by 406 B-17s, which dropped 940 tons of high-explosive bombs and 141 tons of incendiaries. 93% (33 votes) Votez cet article . Anniversaire du bombardement de Dresde Un crime de guerre des alliés anglo-américains, prélude à la guerre froide – Dougal MacDonald – Dans la nuit du 13 au 14 février 1945, le commandement des forces de bombardement de la Royal Air Force a effectué deux bombardements dévastateurs sur la ville allemande de Dresde. There were follow-up newspaper editorials on the issue and a longtime opponent of strategic bombing, Richard Stokes MP, asked questions in the House of Commons on 6 March.[104][105]. [41], The USAF report also states that two of Dresden's traffic routes were of military importance: north-south from Germany to Czechoslovakia, and east–west along the central European uplands. [7], During his post-war interrogation, Albert Speer, Minister of Armaments and War Production for the Third Reich, said that Dresden's industrial recovery from the bombings was rapid. L’holocauste de Dresde, un crime impuni. Le duc de Kent était à Dresde pour la remise du “Prix de la paix” à Kim Phuc Phan Thi, ... (pire que le phosphore). His book is not only good literature. If both were obscured, they would bomb the centre of Dresden using H2X radar. Contrairement aux autres grandes villes, il n'y avait donc pas eu de plan étendu de protection avec grands abris anti-aériens[17]. Apart from that, everything he says is true. But to do so was always repugnant and now that the Germans are beaten anyway we can properly abstain from proceeding with these attacks. Dans la ville de Dresde, joyau architectural, s’étaient réfugiés pas moins de 750 000 civils qui avaient fui devant l’invasion de l’armée soviétique et campaient dans les parcs, sur les trottoirs, dans les rues. Bombardement dresde. Far-right politicians in Germany have sparked a great deal of controversy by promoting the term "Bombenholocaust" ("holocaust by bomb") to describe the raids. I den henseende ville et bombardement kunne ramme meget industri. Vonnegut, being American, did not want to write his account in such a way that the whole thing could be blamed on the British. We saw terrible things: cremated adults shrunk to the size of small children, pieces of arms and legs, dead people, whole families burnt to death, burning people ran to and fro, burnt coaches filled with civilian refugees, dead rescuers and soldiers, many were calling and looking for their children and families, and fire everywhere, everywhere fire, and all the time the hot wind of the firestorm threw people back into the burning houses they were trying to escape from. À l'inverse, des études de l'USAF insistent sur les demandes répétées des Soviétiques de bombardements sur les nœuds ferroviaires de l'Est de l'Allemagne pour faciliter la progression de l'Armée rouge[11]. He concluded that some memory of eyewitnesses was real, but that it had misinterpreted the firing in a dogfight as deliberately aimed at people on the ground. Le 16 février, le ministère de la Propagande publiait un communiqué de presse qui dessinait la ligne générale de la propagande nazie : Dresde n'avait aucune industrie de guerre, n'était qu'une ville de culture et d'hôpitaux. On 23 February 1945, the Allies bombed Pforzheim and caused an estimated 20,000 civilian fatalities; the most devastating raid on any city was on Tokyo on 9–10 March (the Meetinghouse raid)[139] caused over 100,000 civilian casualties. The bombing of Dresden was a British-American aerial bombing attack on the city of Dresden, the capital of the German state of Saxony, during World War II. What they were looking for was a big built-up area which they could burn, and that Dresden possessed in full measure.

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